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23-05-2024

12:00:AM

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GS:3 [Internal Security : Cyber Crime] 


Organised Crime

  • Definition: Organised crime varies from country to country but generally involves illegal activities such as property offenses, money laundering, drug trafficking, currency violations, intimidation, prostitution, gambling, and trafficking in arms and antiquities.
  • It can also involve participation in the legal economy through illegal competitive means like extortion, which can have a greater economic impact than entirely illegal activities. In both cases, criminal methods are used because organised criminal groups are made up of criminal elements.

Various Initiatives Regarding Cyber Security

  1. National Cyber Security Policy
  2. Cyber Surakshit Bharat Initiative
  3. Indian Cyber Crime Coordination Centre (I4C)
  4. Cyber Swachhta Kendra (Botnet Cleaning and Malware Analysis Centre)
  5. Computer Emergency Response Team – India (CERT-In)
  6. Critical information infrastructure (CII)
  7. Defence Cyber Agency (DCyA)

Note : Golden Triangle


  • The Golden Triangle typically refers to a region in Southeast Asia known for the production of illicit drugs, particularly Opium. It's an area where the borders of three countries meet: Myanmar (formerly Burma), Laos, and Thailand.
  • Originally, the term "Golden Triangle" referred to the opium-producing region covering parts of these three countries. However, it has evolved to denote a broader area associated with drug production, trafficking, and organized crime.
  • One more infamous region for illicit drugs is Golden Crescent or “Death crescent”, this crescent region includes Afghanistan and Iran – making it a natural transit point for drugs being smuggled out of Pakistan.


GS 2 : [  Indian Polity – Judiciary]

 

Context

Recent judicial decisions by the Supreme Court, including declaring electoral bonds unconstitutional and granting bail to prominent figures, have sparked debates about the Court’s independence and effectiveness amidst allegations of executive influence and online attacks on its legitimacy.

 

Executive influence and online attacks on legitimacy of Supreme Court of India

Implications:




  • Undermining Judicial Independence: Executive interference or perceived influence can erode the independence and impartiality of the judiciary, compromising its ability to deliver justice.
  • Public Distrust: Online attacks on the legitimacy of the Supreme Court can erode public trust in the institution, undermining its authority and effectiveness.
  • Threat to Rule of Law: Any erosion of the Supreme Court’s legitimacy poses a threat to the rule of law, weakening the foundation of India’s democratic framework.
  • Impact on Judicial Decision-Making: Fear of online backlash or executive pressure may influence judicial decision-making, compromising the court’s ability to uphold constitutional principles and protect fundamental rights.
  • Stifling Dissent: Online attacks may deter judges from delivering unpopular judgments or dissenting opinions, stifling judicial independence and freedom of expression.

 

Way Forward:

 

  • Preserve Judicial Independence: Safeguard the independence of the judiciary from executive influence or pressure, ensuring judges can uphold the rule of law without fear or favour.
  • Combat Online Misinformation: Implement measures to counter online attacks and misinformation campaigns targeting the legitimacy of the Supreme Court, including fact-checking initiatives and public awareness campaigns.
  • Enhance Transparency: Promote transparency in judicial appointments, proceedings, and judgments to foster public trust and accountability.
  • Strengthen Cybersecurity: Bolster cybersecurity measures to protect the Supreme Court and judicial officials from online threats and cyberattacks.
  • Promote Civic Education: Enhance civic education programs to educate the public about the role and importance of an independent judiciary in upholding democracy and protecting rights.
  • Professional Ethics: Uphold professional ethics and standards among legal professionals, judges, and government officials to maintain the integrity and credibility of the judiciary.
  • Engage in Dialogue: Foster constructive dialogue and engagement between the judiciary, executive, civil society, and the media to address concerns and strengthen public confidence in the Supreme Court.
  • Judicial Reform: Implement reforms to enhance the efficiency, accountability, and accessibility of the judicial system, addressing grievances and promoting justice for all..


GS 2 : [Indian Polity & Governance]

 

The article discusses a peculiar trend observed in the 2024 Indian elections where the total number of voters declined in nearly one-third of all constituencies compared to the 2019 elections. It questions the reliability of voter turnout percentages and calls for an explanation from the Election Commission.

Background:

  • In a growing country like India, it’s generally expected that parameters like GDP, population, and voter turnout would increase annually, barring exceptional circumstances like the Covid-19 pandemic.

Analysis of Voter Turnout:

  • An analysis of 427 constituencies until Phase 5 of the 2024 elections revealed a decline in total voters in 115 (27%) constituencies compared to 2019.

Comparison across Elections:

  • The more meaningful measure for comparison is the change in the total number of voters across elections, rather than voter turnout percentages.
  • Until Phase 5 of the 2024 elections, there was a 4% increase in total voters compared to 2019, significantly lower than the 12% increase observed in the same constituencies between 2014 and 2019.

Anomalies in Voter Trends:

  • It’s baffling that 115 constituencies experienced a decline in total voters, a phenomenon not observed in the 2014 elections and seen in only 19 constituencies in 2019.

Possible Explanations:

  • The decline in total voters could be attributed to a significant decrease in voter turnout rather than demographic factors like population decline or increased emigration.
  • The sudden drop in turnout raises questions about whether the reduced participation was voluntary or implicitly coerced.

Questions Raised:

  • The article questions why constituencies that were won by the Opposition in 2019 or were expected to strengthen in 2024 witnessed reduced turnout.
  • It calls for demographic or other explanations to justify the sudden drop in turnout, especially in states considered ‘in play’ for the 2024 elections.

Conclusion:

  • The decline in the absolute number of voters across nearly one-third of all constituencies in the 2024 elections is unprecedented and warrants explanation from the Election Commission..



GS 3 : [Indian Economy: Banking Sector & NBFCs; Growth & Development]

 

How does RBI Generate Surplus?

  • 'RBI's Income:
  • Interest on holdings of domestic and foreign securities.
  • Fees and commissions from its services.
  • Profits from foreign exchange transactions.
  • Returns from subsidiaries and associates.
  • Expenditure of RBI:
  • Printing of currency notes.
  • Payment of interest on deposits and borrowings.
  • Salaries and pensions of staff.
  • Operational expenses of offices and branches.
  • Provisions for contingencies and depreciation.

Surplus:

  • The difference between RBI's income and expenditure is Surplus.

 

Why is it transferred to the government?

  • The central bank transfers its surplus to the government under the provisions of Section 47 of the Reserve Bank of India Act, 1934.
  • The Government of India is the sole owner of India's central bank, the RBI.
  • So the government can make a legitimate claim to this surplus.
  • Also, by virtue of its role as the manager of the country’s currency, the RBI generates more surplus than the entire public sector put together.
  • So this surplus, in effect, belongs entirely to the country’s citizens.
  • Given this, the RBI pays the remaining surplus after setting aside what is needed to be retained as equity capital to maintain its creditworthiness.

 

A technical Committee of the RBI Board headed by Y H Malegam (2013), which reviewed the adequacy of reserves and surplus distribution policy, recommended a higher transfer to the government.


GS 3 : [International Relations: Regional Groupings ; Important International Institutions]

 

Bay of Bengal Initiative for Multi-Sectoral Technical and Economic Cooperation (BIMSTEC)