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Table of Content

  • GS-3 Science & Technology
    •  Technology and InnovationReport2023
  • Fact File
    • DigiClaim: A Component of Pradhan Mantri Fasal Bima Yojana (PMFBY)
    • Convicted Rahul Gandhi's MP status in question

 Technology and InnovationReport2023

GS-3: Awareness in the fields of IT, Space, Computers, Robotics, Nano-technology, Bio-technology and issues relating to Intellectual Property Rights.

The UN Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD) published the Technology and Innovation Report 2023, which warns that unless the government and international community act now, many developing countries won't benefit from the "green tech" revolution, which could worsen the economic inequality between developed and developing countries.


Key Highlights of the Report

  • Green technologies such as artificial intelligence, Internet of Things, and electric vehicles are currently benefiting developed countries more than developing ones, which may further deepen the economic gap between nations.
  • The report shows that a technological revolution is starting based on green technologies, which will have a huge impact on the global economy.
  • The report identifies 17 frontier technologies that have the potential to generate over $9.5 trillion in revenue by 2030, creating significant economic opportunities.
  • These technologies include artificial intelligence, Internet of Things, big data, blockchain, 5G, 3D printing, robotics, drone technology, solar photovoltaic, concentrated solar power, biofuels, biogas and biomass, wind energy, green hydrogen, electric vehicles, nanotechnology and gene editing.
  • Without decisive action from governments and international organizations, developing countries may miss out on these economic benefits, leading to a worsened global economic inequality.
  • The report stresses the importance of technology transfer and investment in green tech in developing countries to address the green tech divide and promote equitable access to the benefits of new technologies to ensure a more sustainable and inclusive global economy.
  • It calls for a global framework for innovation that prioritizes social and environmental needs while fostering innovation and growth.
  • The report emphasizes the importance of developing local innovation and technology capabilities in developing countries to ensure that they can participate in the green tech revolution and benefit from it.

Key recommendations 

  • The report suggests several recommendations to address the deepening green tech divide between the global north and south.
  • Developing countries need to invest in research and development, as well as education and training, to build capacity for the development and deployment of green technologies.
  • Governments should implement policies that support the transfer of technology and encourage international cooperation in research and development.
  • Public and private sectors should collaborate to create innovative financing mechanisms to help developing countries adopt green technologies.
  • Governments should prioritize renewable energy, energy efficiency, and sustainable agriculture to promote the use of green technologies.
  • Multilateral institutions should support developing countries in adopting and deploying green technologies, and help them participate in global value chains.
  • The international community should work together to establish a framework for global technologygovernance that promotes cooperation, equity, and inclusivity.


India's Progress and Challenges in Green Technologies Adoption: UNCTAD Report

  • India is one of the few developing countries to have made strides in renewable energy adoption and technological innovation, but the country is still lagging behind in other areas.
  • According to the report, India has made progress in digital infrastructure, renewable energy capacity, and electric vehicle deployment.
  • However, India still lags behind in some of the critical green technologies, such as artificial intelligence and biotechnology, which can potentially limit the country's access to the economic benefits of the green tech revolution.
  • The report highlights the need for developing countries, including India, to prioritize the development of green technologies and build the necessary infrastructure to support the adoption of these technologies.
  • India remains the greatest performer, ranking at 67 positions better than expected, followed by the Philippines (54 positions better) and Vietnam (44 better).



  • UNCTAD is a permanent intergovernmental organization.
  • It was established by the United Nations General Assembly in 1964
  • Headquarters: Geneva, Switzerland, with additional offices in New York and Addis Ababa. 
  • The first United Nations Conference on Trade and Development (UNCTAD) was held in Geneva in 1964.
  • As a part of the UN Secretariat, UNCTAD is accountable to the UN General Assembly and the Economic and Social Council, but the organization has its own leadership, budget, and membership. 
  • UNCTAD is also a member of the United Nations Development Group.
  • Objective: To encourage sustainable development, especially in developing countries, by promoting international trade, investment, finance, and technology transfer
  • The organization's work is concentrated on four primary areas, which are trade and development, investment and enterprise, technology and innovation, and macroeconomics and development policies.


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Fact File .

DigiClaim: A Component of Pradhan Mantri Fasal Bima Yojana (PMFBY)

  • The National Crop Insurance Portal's digital claims settlement module, known as DigiClaim, has been launched under the Pradhan Mantri FasalBima Yojana (PMFBY) by the Ministry of Agriculture & Farmers Welfare.
  • It is a significant step towards digitizing the crop insurance claims process and making it more accessible and efficient for farmers.


  • The DigiClaim allows farmers to submit crop insurance claims online through a simple and user-friendly interface. 
  • Farmers can upload photos of their crop damage and documents related to their claims on the DigiClaim portal. This ensures faster processing of claims and timely payment of compensation to farmers.
  • It uses cutting-edge technology to enable a transparent, paperless, and efficient claims settlement process. Farmers can track the status of their claims in real-time and receive SMS alerts on the progress of their claims.
  • It provides multilingual support, which makes it accessible to farmers across the country. 
  • The portal is available in several languages, including English, Hindi, Punjabi, and Marathi

Convicted Rahul Gandhi's MP status in question

  • A Congress leader – RahulGandhihas been sentenced to two years in jail for defamation in a 2019 case concerning his comments about the "Modi surname" by a Surat court in Gujarat. The Surat district court found Gandhi guilty under Indian Penal Code sections 499 and 500, but he was granted bail and the sentence was suspended for 30 days, allowing him to appeal in a higher court.

Can this conviction disqualify Rahul Gandhi as an MP?

  • According to the Representation of the People Act of 1951, there are two instances where an MP can be disqualified due to conviction. 
  1. The first is if the offence for which they were convicted is listed in Section 8(1) of the act, which includes specific offences such as promoting enmity between two groups, bribery and undue influence or personation at an election, but not defamation. 
  2. The second instance is if the MP is convicted of any other offence and is sentenced to a minimum of two years of imprisonment, as stated in Section 8(3) of the RPA.
  • However, Section 8(4) states that disqualification only happens after three months from the conviction date.
  • During this time, Rahul Gandhi can appeal against the sentence to the High Court.
  • The Supreme Court declared Section 8(4) unconstitutional in the 2013 'Lily Thomas v Union of India' ruling, which removed the pause on disqualification for filing an appeal.
  • Therefore, a convicted MP must obtain a specific order to stay the conviction, not just file an appeal.
  • In addition, the stay of conviction must be granted, not just a suspension of sentence under Section 389 of the CrPC.
  • Section 389 of the CrPC allows for the Appellate Court to suspend the sentence while the appeal is ongoing, similar to bail.


  • Defamation is a wrong that deals with damage caused to a person’s reputation.
  • In India, defamation can be both a civil wrong and a criminal offense, depending on the objective.
  • A civil wrong seeks monetary compensation, while a criminal offense aims to punish the wrongdoer and send a message to others not to commit such acts, with a jail term.
  • In criminal cases, defamation must be established beyond reasonable doubt, while in civil defamation suits, damages can be awarded based on probabilities.
  • Section 499 of the IPC 
  • Section 499 of the IPC defines criminal defamation, and the subsequent provisions define its punishment.
  • It elaborates on how defamation could be through words – spoken or intended to be read, through signs, and also through visible representations.
  • These can either be published or spoken about a person with the intention of damaging reputation of that person, or with the knowledge or reason to believe that the imputation will harm his reputation.
  • Section 500 of the IPC 
  • Section 500 prescribes imprisonment of up to two years, with or without a fine, for someone found guilty of criminal defamation.



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