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  • Essay
    • The history of Gujarat’s Vadnagar, included in the tentative list of UNESCO World Heritage sites
  • Fact File
    • India pushes for new biodiversity fund

The history of Gujarat’s Vadnagar, included in the tentative list of UNESCO World Heritage sites

GS-1: Indian Culture - Salient aspects of Art Forms, Literature and Architecture from ancient to modern times.


Two sites of Gujarat have been included in the tentative list of tentative list of UNESCO World Heritage sites Vadnagar, and the Sun Temple of Modhera. Both these sites are located in the Mehsana district of northern Gujarat.


World Heritage site

  • A World Heritage Site is a location with an “outstanding universal value”. 
  • Significance: Cultural or natural significance which is so exceptional as to transcend national boundaries and be of common importance for present and future generations of all humanity.
  • It is designated by World Heritage Committee under the aegis of United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO). 
  • In 1972, the Convention Concerning ‘the Protection of the World Cultural and Natural Heritage’ was adopted, which mandate the UNESCO to protect and preserve world Heritage sites.
  • Governments of countries that have ratified the Convention identify and nominate suitable sites to the World Heritage Committee for inscription on the list maintained by UNESCO.
  • Nomination process:

Heritage Sites in India

  • From India, there are 40 Properties inscribed on the World Heritage List. 
  • Out of these 40 sites, Khangchendzonga National Park (2016) is a mixed site.
  • There are 7 natural sites as mentioned below – 
  • Remaining 32 are cultural sites.
  • Great Himalayan National Park Conservation Area (2014)
  • Keoladeo National Park (1985)
  • Nanda Devi and Valley of Flowers National Parks (1988, 2005)
  • Western Ghats (2012)
  • Kaziranga National Park (1985)
  • Manas Wildlife Sanctuary (1985)
  • Sundarbans National Park (1987)

Sites on the Tentative List

  • In India, there are 52 sites on the tentative list.
  • Out of these, sites included in tentative list in 2022 are as follows:
  • Geoglyphs of Konkan Region of India
  • Jingkieng jri: Living Root Bridge Cultural Landscapes
  • Sri Veerabhadra Temple and Monolithic Bull (Nandi), Lepakshi (The Vijayanagara Sculpture and Painting Art Tradition)
  • Sun Temple, Modhera and its adjoining monuments
  • Rock-cut Sculptures and Reliefs of the Unakoti, Unakoti Range, Unakoti District
  • Vadnagar – A multi-layered Historic town, Gujarat

Vadnagar, an ancient ‘Living City’

  • The town represents a continuously evolving historic urban landscape/area which played a major role in the hinterland trade network of Western India. 
  • The continuity of the historic town proves its resilience and outstanding universal value unlike the sites like Harappa and Kalibangan, (Rajasthan) which were abandoned eventually.
  • Architectural influence of various cultural periods: The excavated sites showcase Buddhist monasteries and dedicated stupas, fortifications of town, arched gateways (toranas), temples, wells, residential structures (kothis). 
  • Location: Vadnagar is located at a strategic location of two major ancient trade routes – 
  1. Joining central India with the Sindh and further northwest regions.
  2. Joining the port towns on Gujarat’s coast to northern India.
  • Egyptian connection: A gold coin, believed to be from the Mamluk dynasty of Egypt that dated back to the 15th century, was also found. 
  • Roman connection: Found an intaglio (a printing technique) in clay, a coin mould of Greco-Indian king Apollodotus II (80-65 BC) and the sealing of a Roman coin.



Fact File

India pushes for new biodiversity fund

  • At the U.N. biodiversity conference in Canada’s Montreal, India raised a concern regarding an urgent need to create a new and dedicated fund to help developing countries to halt and reverse biodiversity loss under a post-2020 Global Biodiversity Framework (GBF).
  • It proposed that conservation of biodiversity must also be based on common but differentiated responsibilities and respective capabilities (CBDR) in line with climate change.
  • Currently, the Global Environment Facility (GEF) is the only source of funding, which caters to multiple conventions, including the UNFCCC, UN Convention to Combat Desertification and for biodiversity conservation.
  • Why developing countries require more funds? Developing countries bear the burden of implementing the targets for conservation of biodiversity and, therefore require funds and technology transfer for this purpose.
  • The existing multilateral sources are not up to the task of meeting the requirements of the GBF.


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