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Table of Content

  • GS-3 Science and Technology
  • COP-15 summit adopts historic biodiversity deal to reverse loss
  • Fact File
  • What is doxxing, and why has Twitter suspended the accounts of several journalists? 
  • Over 3,000 govt. services to be added for online delivery  

COP-15 summit adopts historic biodiversity deal to reverse loss

GS-3: Conservation, Environmental Pollution and Degradation, Environmental Impact Assessment.


At the UN COP-15 biodiversity summit in Montreal, Canada, around 200 countries including India approved a historic ‘Paris-style’ deal to protect and reverse dangerous loss to global biodiversity and restoring natural ecosystems.  The summit was chaired by the China and hosted by Canada. With the culmination of summit, the UN Convention on Biological Diversity adopted the “Kunming-Montreal Global Biodiversity Framework” (GBF), including four goals and 23 targets for achievement by 2030.



Global targets for 2030

  • 30 by 30 Target: Effective conservation and management of at least 30% of the world’s lands, inland waters, coastal areas and oceans, with emphasis on areas of particular importance for biodiversity and ecosystem functioning and services.
  • It also recognises indigenous and traditional territories and practices towards goal.
  • Currently 17% and 10% of the world’s terrestrial and marine areas respectively are under protection.
  • Restoration: The deal aims to restore at least 30% of degraded terrestrial, inland waters, and coastal and marine ecosystems.
  • Protection: The loss of areas of high biodiversity importance will be reduced to near zero.
  • Food Security: It aims to cut global food waste in half and significantly reduce over consumption and waste generation.
  • Funding: Mobilize by 2030 at least $200 billion per year in domestic and international biodiversity-related funding from all sources – public and private.
  • Least developed countries, Small Island developing States, and countries with economies in transition must contribute at least US$ 20 billion per year by 2025, and at least US$ 30 billion per year by 2030.
  • Invasive alien species: Introduction must be prevented and  reduce by at least half the introduction and establishment of other known or potential invasive alien species, and eradicate or control invasive alien species on islands and other priority sites.
  • Responsible Industry:  large and transnational companies and financial institutions must require to monitor, assess, and transparently disclose their risks, dependencies and impacts on biodiversity through their operations, supply and value chains and portfolios.
  • Phasing out harmful subsidies: Subsidies that harm biodiversity needs to be phase out or reform by at least $500 billion per year by 2030, while scaling up positive incentives for biodiversity’s conservation and sustainable use.
  • Pesticides and chemicals: Reduce the overall risk from pesticides and highly hazardous chemicals by at least half by 2030.

Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD)

  • The CBD is the is an international legally-binding treaty with three main goals:
  • Conservation of biodiversity
  • Sustainable use of biodiversity
  • The fair and equitable sharing of the benefits arising from the use of genetic resources
  • It was opened for signature at the Earth Summit in Rio de Janeiro on 5 June 1992 and entered into force on 29 December 1993.
  • It covers biodiversity at all levels – Ecosystems, species and genetic resources.
  • At present, there are 193 member parties.
  • The Secretariat of the Convention on Biological Diversity (SCBD) is based in Montreal, Canada.
  • The Executive Secretary is the head of the Secretariat.


Conference of the Parties (COP)

  • The governing body of the CBD is the Conference of the Parties (COP). 
  • The COP is the ultimate authority that meets every two years to review progress, set priorities and commit to work plans.


Aichi Biodiversity Targets


  • In 2010, Parties to the CBD adopted the Strategic Plan for Biodiversity 2011–2020, a ten-year framework for action by all countries and stakeholders to safeguard biodiversity and the benefits it provides to people.
  • As part of the Strategic Plan, 20 realistic targets (known as the Aichi Biodiversity Targets) were adopted.
  • Governments have committed to establishing national targets (National Biodiversity Strategies and Action Plans (NBSAPs)) in support of the Aichi Biodiversity Targets.
  • NBSAPs reflect how a country intends to fulfill the objectives of the CBD and the concrete actions it intends to take.


The Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety, and its Nagoya—Kuala Lumpur Supplementary Protocol on Liability and Redress

  • The CBD covers biotechnology through the Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety.
  • Aim: to ensure the safe transport, handling and use of living modified organisms (LMOs) resulting from modern biotechnology that may have adverse effects on biodiversity, also taking into account risks to human health.
  • The protocol was adopted on 29 January 2000 and entered into force on 11 September 2003
  • As of May 2011, 160 countries and the European Union have ratified or acceded to the Protocol.
  • The Cartagena Protocol is reinforced by the Nagoya—Kuala Lumpur Supplementary Protocol on Liability and Redress.
  • It was adopted on 15 October 2010 in Nagoya, Japan.
  • It specifies response measures to be taken in the event of damage to biodiversity resulting from LMOs.


Note: Modern biotechnology involves modifying the genetic material of an organism with the aim of developing or improving one or more characteristics in the organism. While this technology has the potential to generate benefits for humankind and contribute to sustainable development, there are concerns that living modified organisms resulting from biotechnology may have negative effects on biodiversity and human health.


The Nagoya Protocol on Access to Genetic Resources and Benefit-Sharing

  • Nagoya Protocol was adopted in Nagoya, Japan at the 10th COP in 2010.
  • The protocol is on access to Genetic Resources and the Fair and Equitable Sharing of Benefits Arising from their Utilization.
  • The fundamental principles of access and benefit-sharing: When a person or institution seeks access to genetic resources in a foreign country, it should obtain the prior informed consent of the country in which the resource is located.
  • Access to Genetic Resources: When countries are acting as providers of genetic resources, it should provide fair and non-arbitrary rules and procedures for access to their genetic resources.


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Fact Files

What is doxxing, and why has Twitter suspended the accounts of several journalists? 

  • In continuation of the Twitter’s new anti-doxxing policy, the account of several journalists in the United States has been suspended.
  • What is doxxing?
  • Doxxing is basically the revealing of someone’s intimate information with the intention of harassment.
  • It is a popular tool and widely used against those with opposing political views and sometimes against celebrities and influencers that have been doxxed with real-life consequences.
  • This private information includes one’s address, contact information, Identity documents, financial information, and other private information.

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Over 3,000 govt. services to be added for online delivery  

  • 3120 new government services will be added for online delivery during the five-day Good Governance Week.

Good Governance Week

  • Celebrated during the 19-25 December every year.
  • Celebrated by: Department of Administrative Reforms and Public Grievances, Ministry of Personnel, Public Grievances & Pensions.
  • Started in 2014 in the memory of the former Prime Minister of India, Shri Atal Bihari Vajpayee by declaring his birthday (December 25) as ‘Good Governance Day’ - Susasan Divas.
  • Aim: showcase and replicate the best governance practices to grassroots level.
  • Theme of 2022: “Prashasan Gaon Ki Ore (Governance Towards Village)”.
  • It is a 5- day nationwide campaign for Redressal of Public Grievances and Improving Service Delivery will be held in all Districts, States and Union Territories of India.
  • As a part of the initiative, 3,120 New Services identified by District Collectors across the country will be added for Online Service Delivery.


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