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Table of Content

  • Essay
    • China, West, G20 Presidency: Opportunities & concerns for India in 2023
    • What is Zelenskiy’s 10-point peace plan?
  • Fact File
    • What is the CAG audit report on Assam’s NRC?

China, West, G20 Presidency: Opportunities & concerns for India in 2023

GS-2: Important International institutions, agencies and fora- their structure, mandate.


India is entering 2023 with diplomatic and military challenges and opportunities as a host of the G-20 summit. The world is currently dealing with post-Covid economic recovery, the development of health structures to deal with future pandemics, and challenges to global norms for the protection of the environment.


Challenges ahead India in 2023

  • Russia – Ukraine war: It impacted the world with food and energy security and is pushing the global economy towards a recession.
  • Chinese aggression: While the entire world is busy dealing with the Covid-19 pandemic and Russia – Ukraine war, India is facing grave aggression on its border with China.
  • Apart from this, China is also pushing aggressive territorial policy in the South China Sea.
  • Taliban engagement begins: India finally started looking at the Taliban as a political actor and conditionally began the process of re-engaging by sending humanitarian aid in the form of food grains, vaccines, and essential medicines, making red lines clear on the menace of extremism and rights of minorities and women.
  • Pakistan turmoil: India is still on the tumultuous path with its neighbour Pakistan as it is still facing political and military stability issues and rhetoric against India.
  • Neighbourhood in crisis:
  • Sri Lanka is doomed to an economic crisis, which has allowed china to hamper India’s security and strategic interests in the Indian Ocean.
  • Engagement with Myanmar has resulted in the influx of refugees in the North-East region due to the military junta regime in Myanmar.




What is Zelenskiy’s 10-point peace plan?

GS-2: Effect of Policies and Politics of Developed and Developing Countries on India’s interests.


Ukrainian president Volodymyr Zelenskiy has proposed a 10-point peace plan at the November summit of the G-20. It also urged world leaders to hold a Global Peace Summit 2023 based on it. 

10-point Peace Plan

  1. Radiation and nuclear safety, focusing on restoring safety around Europe's largest nuclear power plant, Zaporizhzhia in Ukraine, which is now Russian occupied.
  2. Food security, including protecting and ensuring Ukraine's grain exports to the world's poorest nations.
  3. Energy security, with a focus on price restrictions on Russian energy resources, as well as aiding Ukraine with restoring its power infrastructure, half of which has been damaged by Russian attacks.
  4. Release of all prisoners and deportees, including war prisoners and children deported to Russia.
  5. Restoring Ukraine's territorial integrity and Russia reaffirming it according to the UN Charter, which Mr. Zelenskiy said is "not up to negotiations".
  6. Withdrawal of Russian troops and cessation of hostilities, restoration of Ukraine's state borders with Russia.
  7. Justice, including the establishment of a special tribunal to prosecute Russian war crimes.
  8. Prevention of ecocide, the need for protection of the environment, with a focus on demining and restoring water treatment facilities.
  9. Prevention of escalation of conflict, and building security architecture in the Euro-Atlantic space, including guarantees for Ukraine.
  10. Confirmation of the war's end, including a document signed by the involved parties.


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Fact File

What is the CAG audit report on Assam’s NRC?

  • A recent report of the Comptroller and Auditor-General of India (CAG) report on the update exercise of the National Register of Citizens (NRC) in Assam has raised certain concerns regarding the exercise.

NRC Exercise

  • An NRC exercise is undertaken only in Assam and was first created in 1951.
  • The purpose behind the creation of NRC was to identify and deport illegal immigrants from erstwhile East Pakistan, now Bangladesh.
  • In 2013, the Supreme Court of India directed the Center and State to update the 1951 register.
  • The activity was undertaken and the result – based on the Assam Accord of August 1985 – was published in 2019. 
  • The Assam accord of 1985 sets midnight of 24th march, 1971 as a cut-off date for the declaration of illegal immigrants in Assam.
  • Thus, the report included all those who could establish their Indian citizenship by being residents or descendants of people living in Assam before March 25, 1971.  
  • Currently, due to faulty/erroneous methodology for inclusion and exclusion in the list, the process is halted.


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