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16-05-2024

12:00:AM

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GS 2 : [Polity & Governance] 

Internet Shutdowns in India:

  • India has recorded the highest number of internet shutdowns in the world.
  • Such shutdowns are never or almost never implemented in most parts of Europe, North and South America, and Oceania, while they are rampant in Africa and Asia.

Who Governs Internet Shutdowns in India?

  • Internet shutdown orders are governed under the Temporary Suspension of Telecom Services (Public Emergency or Public Safety) Rules, 2017, under the Indian Telegraph Act, 1885.
  • Using Section 144 of the Code of Criminal Procedure: It justifies the communications blockade and the continuance of it, has been a rising trend.

How does it violate fundamental Rights?

  • The Internet plays a crucial role in realizing numerous Fundamental Rights beyond Freedom of Speech and Expression.
  • Article 19 of the Constitution mentions freedom of speech and freedom to practise any profession.
  • Article 21 protects the right to life and liberty, which also encompasses the right to education and the right to exercise one’s freedom to access the Internet.
  • In the digital age, people utilize it for essential activities such as accessing rations, conducting card transactions, communicating with relatives, managing healthcare, and more, all of which are vital for their daily functioning.

Supreme Court’s View on Internet Shutdown

  • The Supreme Court has held in various decisions, including in Anuradha Bhasinand Faheema Shirin, that access to the Internethas to be preserved.
  • Shutdowns should be exercised only in situations which require exceptional control and surveillance.
  • The Court has said a shutdown needs to be temporary, limited in scope, lawful and proportionate.


GS1 : [Indian Society – Effects of globalisation on Indian society]  

Potential Impact of Social Media On Election Process

Pros of Social Media on Election Process:

  • Increased Voter Engagement: Social media platforms provide opportunities for political parties and candidates to engage directly with voters, encouraging participation and awareness.
  • Wider Reach: Social media enables political campaigns to reach a broader audience, including young voters and those in remote areas, enhancing political communication and outreach.
  • Transparency: Real-time updates and information sharing on social media promote transparency in the electoral process, allowing voters to access news and updates easily.
  • Cost-Effective Campaigning: Social media campaigns are often more cost-effective than traditional advertising methods, levelling the playing field for candidates with limited resources.
  • Political Discourse: Social media facilitates political discourse and debate, allowing citizens to discuss issues, share opinions, and participate in democratic dialogue.

Cons of Social Media on Election Process:

  • Spread of Misinformation: Social media can be a breeding ground for the spread of fake news, rumours, and misinformation, influencing voter perceptions and decision-making.
  • Polarisation: Echo chambers and filter bubbles on social media platforms can reinforce existing biases and polarise political discourse, leading to increased divisiveness.
  • Manipulation: Social media can be exploited for political manipulation, including the spread of propaganda, disinformation campaigns, and foreign interference.
  • Privacy Concerns: The collection and use of personal data on social media raise privacy concerns, particularly regarding targeted advertising and micro-targeting of voters.
  • Digital Divide: Not all citizens have equal access to social media platforms, creating a digital divide that may exclude certain demographics from participating fully in the electoral process.


GS-2: [Governance : Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors]

GS-3: [Enviroment : Conservation, environmental pollution and degradation]

What is the status of Delhi’s SWM system?

  • Population Growth and Waste Generation:
  • According to the 2011 Census Data, New Delhi’s population was approximately 1.7 crore. However, this Population is expected to increase to around 2.32 crore.
  • This increase will lead to a significant rise in waste generation, estimated at approximately 13,000 tonnes per day (TPD), which equates to roughly 1,400 truckloads daily.
  • Presently, this daily waste generation accumulates to about 42 lakh tonnes per annum. The population is anticipated to reach 2.85 crore by 2031 due to which the waste generation could increase to 17,000 TPD.
  • Waste Collection: Around 90% of the waste generated in the city is collected by three municipal corporations:
  • Municipal Corporation of Delhi (MCD)
  • Delhi Cantonment Board
  • New Delhi Municipal Corporation
  • Waste Composition is of major types – Biodegradable Wet Waste (50-55%), Non-Biodegradable Dry Waste (around 35%), and Inert Waste (10% that does not decompose). The total collective capacity of these facilities is about 9,200 tonnes per day (TPD).

Challenges to waste management in Municipal Corporation of Delhi

  • Lack of Waste Segregation at Source: Many households and commercial establishments do not segregate waste. Unprocessed mixed waste enters landfills as a result.
  • Land Availability for Waste Processing Plants: Waste processing plants require large land parcels (30-40 acres each). Securing such large tracts of land is challenging in Delhi.
  • Public Awareness and Practices: There is a lack of public awareness regarding proper waste management practices. This leads to littering and improper disposal habits. MCD’s focus shifts to clearing open points rather than processing wet waste.
  • Inadequate Waste Collection Services: Some areas suffer from irregular waste collection services. This contributes to waste buildup and increased littering.
  • Illegal Dumping: Waste is often illegally dumped in open areas and water bodies. This increases the pressure on the MCD and requires additional resources for cleanup.

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